Anthocyanin Overview Genetic Regulation and Field Observations of Cannabis
Khoo, H. E., Azlan, A., Tang, S. T., & Lim, S. M. (2017). Anthocyanidins and anthocyanins: Colored pigments as food, pharmaceutical ingredients, and the potential health benefits. Food & nutrition research, 61(1), 1361779.
What Are Anthocyanins?
Anthocyanins, are colored water-soluble pigments which are a class of flavonoids, impart pigmentation to the plant parts and play important roles in plant environment interactions.
These compounds can also have medical benefits as well.
More Than one Anthocyonin
Blueberries contain 5 out of the 6
Each has a different coloration, however the color is influenced by pH, light, temperature and structure.
In general, anthocyanins are red in acidic conditions and blue when pH is increased.
Color Change Complexities
Color changes in response to pH variation of anthocyanin
Can be used as a pH indicator and extracted from red cabbage
Copigmentation helps to stabilize the color of the leaves, flowers, and fruits of the plant.
Increased color intensity can be due to the copigmentation of anthocyanidins with flavonoids.
Heat and Anthocyanin Extract Solution
Heat treatment of an anthocyanin-rich extract solution may not cause a degradation of anthocyanin pigments.
This is because the extract commonly contains phenolic compounds that are enzymatically degraded by polyphenol oxidase.
Mild heat treatment of the extract to up to 50°C has been shown to inactivate the enzymatic reaction
Without the denaturing of this enzyme the anthocyanin can be preserved despite the increase in temperature.
Organic solvents (Ex. methanol and ethanol)
Considered as a generally safe extraction medium, isolation of anthocyanins using water-based extraction is a less toxic procedure.
Subcritical water-based extraction
Using acidified water (0.01% HCl, pH ~2.3) that is subjected to high temperatures between 110–160°C under a constant pressure of 40 bars
It is a highly efficient technique for extraction of anthocyanins from fruit.
Separation of Anthocyanins
Anthocyanins are extracted from plants as a crude mixture.
For that reason, separation or isolation of specific type of anthocyanin is needed for a specific purpose.
Separation and identification of anthocyanins can be done by various chromatographic methods.
Regulation of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis
Article (still under copyright)
Kundan, M., Gani, U., Fayaz, M., Angmo, T., Kesari, R., Rahul, V. P., … & Misra, P. (2022). Two R2R3-MYB transcription factors, CsMYB33 and CsMYB78 are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Cannabis sativa L. Industrial Crops and Products, 188, 115546.
What is a Transcription Factor?
Transcription factors are proteins involved in the process of converting, or transcribing, DNA into RNA.
Transcription factors include a wide number of proteins, excluding RNA polymerase, that initiate and regulate the transcription of genes
Why Look at Transcription Factors?
These are important for gene regulation and cell signaling.
This will have a direct impact on the expression (or suppression) of this gene.
MYB Family of Transcription Factors
MYB transcription factors (TFs), as one of the largest gene families in plants.
MYB family of transcription factors plays a vital role in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis
99 R2R3-MYB genes have been identified in the C. sativa genome.
MYB TFs are also widely involved in the secondary metabolism of organic acids in medicinal plants.
This is a Start…
There is still limited knowledge about the structural and functional attributes of R2R3-MYBs in C. sativa
How Does This Help a Grower?
After this in depth investigation about Anthocyanins, most growers recognize this as purple coloration on their plants.
Often this is the result of an environmental stress.
Two examples of this plant response will be shown…
Prof. DeBacco = Early season transplant shock increasing anthocyanin production in the main stem of outdoor transplanted seedlings
Kiera = Showing increased anthocyanin production on leaf petioles due to a sudden increase in light exposure due to the remove of near by plants shading.
Link to Lecture Slides: https://drive.google.com/file/d/10nf8PNetiqq3L8DgTm84x2W9I2Bvx00T/view?usp=share_link
*Due to the description character limit the full work cited for “Anthocyanin Overview Genetic Regulation and Field Observations of Cannabis” can be viewed at… https://docs.google.com/document/d/1iIB70kSrEEprtJw8GvinnVuossE660ke/edit?usp=share_link&ouid=104237452697237972847&rtpof=true&sd=true